Ending tuberculosis by 2030

Every year, Guyana joins the rest of the world in observing World TB Day on March 24, calling for a united end to tuberculosis. The call is very relevant and necessary, considering the fact that countries are about to enter the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), of which a key health target is ending tuberculosis (TB) by 2030.
Every year, 1.9 million people die from tobacco-induced heart disease, and this equates to one in five of all deaths from heart disease, according to the World Health Organization, World Heart Federation, and the University of Newcastle, Australia.
A report released by WHO once again sends a strong warning to smokers of the fatal effects such action could have on individuals.
The report’s authors urged all tobacco users to quit and avoid a heart attack, stressing that smokers are more likely to experience an acute cardiovascular event at a younger age than non-smokers.
“Just a few cigarettes a day, occasional smoking, or exposure to second-hand smoke increases the risk of heart disease. But if tobacco users take immediate action and quit, then their risk of heart disease will decrease by 50% after one year of not smoking.”
Dr Eduardo Bianco, Chair of the World Heart Federation Tobacco Expert Group, points out that given the current level of evidence on tobacco and cardiovascular health, and the health benefits of quitting smoking, failing to offer cessation services to patients with heart disease could be considered clinical malpractice or negligence.
He noted that cardiology societies should train their members in smoking cessation, as well as to promote and even drive tobacco control advocacy efforts.
Of note, too, is that the report shows that smokeless tobacco is responsible for around 200,000 deaths from coronary heart disease per year. Many young people are misled to believe that E-cigarettes are not as harmful as the traditional cigarettes, but experts have warned that they are equally damaging, as they raise blood pressure, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Moreover, high blood pressure and heart disease increase the risk of severe COVID-19. The report points to a recent WHO survey which found that among people dying of COVID-19 in Italy, 67% had high blood pressure; and in Spain, 43% of people who developed COVID-19 were living with heart disease.
In a more general sense, tobacco is responsible for over seven million deaths per year worldwide. This includes approximately 900,000 persons who die from diseases related to exposure to tobacco smoke. Over 40% of all tobacco-related deaths are from lung diseases like cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis.
Guyana’s tobacco control law, enacted in 2017, follows several of the articles of the WHO Convention, and mandates the adoption and implementation of a series of tobacco control policies that make it one of the most complete tobacco control laws. These include: 100% smoke free environments in all indoor public spaces, indoor work spaces, public transportation and specified outdoor spaces, to protect people from exposure to tobacco smoke; a ban on all forms of advertising and promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products; health warnings featured on 60% of tobacco product packaging, including images. It also includes a ban on the sale of tobacco products to and by minors, prohibition on vending machines’ sales; and a ban on the manufacture and sales of toys and candies, and any other goods, in the form of tobacco products.
However, there is still much work to be done to win the battle against tobacco, as approximately 78% of all deaths here are caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs); some of which we all know are strongly related to tobacco use.
We had pointed out several times before that having the necessary legislation in place is a good starting point, but there are many other challenges which health authorities here must address if Guyana is to really reduce the number of persons dying or becoming ill due to tobacco use or exposure. These challenges relate to monitoring and compliance, and enforcement of the legislation to ensure that the population is protected from the dangers of tobacco use.